Breaking

Sunday, December 29, 2019

INTRODUCTION TO THE CELL


 The word cell is derived from the  Latin word cella,  which  meaning "small room. The cell is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known organisms. A cell is the smallest unit of life. Cells are often called the "building blocks of life". The study of cells is called cell biology, cellular biology, or cytology.

It can also be said that the cell is a com­plete unit of metabolism because it has all the chemical and physical factors necessary for its growth and maintenance. An isolated cell is also capable of growth and differentiation in a laboratory if the proper nutrients and appropriate environments are given.The cell is the smallest unit of matter that can carry on all the processes of life.


History of Cell

 The cell theory, or cell doctrine, states that all organisms are composed of similar units of organization, called cells. The concept was formally articulated in 1839 by Schleiden & Schwann and has remained as the foundation of modern biology. The idea predates other great paradigms of biology including Darwin’s theory of evolution (1859), Mendel’s laws of inheritance (1865), and the establishment of comparative biochemistry (1940).
First Cells observed in the history
The cell was first discovered and named by Robert Hooke in 1665. He remarked that it looked strangely similar to cellula or small rooms which monks inhabited, thus deriving the name. However what Hooke actually saw was the dead cell walls of plant cells (cork) as it appeared under the microscope. Hooke’s description of these cells was published in Micrographia. The cell walls observed by Hooke gave no indication of the nucleus and other organelles found in most living cells. The first man to witness a live cell under a microscope was Anton van Leeuwenhoek, who in 1674 described the algae Spirogyra. Van Leeuwenhoek probably also saw bacteria.
Formulation of the Cell Theory
In 1838, Theodor Schwann and Matthias Schleiden were enjoying after-dinner coffee and talking about their studies on cells. It has been suggested that when Schwann heard Schleiden describe plant cells with nuclei, he was struck by the similarity of these plant cells to cells he had observed in animal tissues. The two scientists went immediately to Schwann’s lab to look at his slides. Schwann published his book on animal and plant cells (Schwann 1839) the next year, a treatise devoid of acknowledgments of anyone else’s contribution, including that of Schleiden (1838). He summarized his observations into three conclusions about cells:
1.     The cell is the unit of structure, physiology, and organization in living things.
2.     The cell retains a dual existence as a distinct entity and a building block in the construction of organisms.
3.     Cells form by free-cell formation, similar to the formation of crystals (spontaneous generation).
We know today that the first two tenets are correct, but the third is clearly wrong. The correct interpretation of cell formation by division was finally promoted by others and formally enunciated in Rudolph Virchow’s powerful dictum, Omnis cellula e cellula,: “All cells only arise from pre-existing cells”.
Modern Cell Theory
1.     All known living things are made up of cells.
2.     The cell is structural & functional unit of all living things.
3.     All cells come from pre-existing cells by division. (Spontaneous Generation does not occur).
4.     Cells contains hereditary information which is passed from cell to cell during cell division.
5.     All cells are basically the same in chemical composition.
6.     All energy flow (metabolism & biochemistry) of life occurs within cells.
As with the rapid growth of molecular biology in the mid-20th century, cell biology research exploded in the 1950’s. It became possible to maintain, grow, and manipulate cells outside of living organisms. The first continuous cell line to be so cultured was in 1951 by George Otto Gey and coworkers, derived from cervical cancer cells taken from Henrietta Lacks, who died from her cancer in 1951. The cell line, which was eventually referred to as HeLa cells, have been the watershed in studying cell biology in the way that the structure of DNA was the significant breakthrough of molecular biology.
In an avalanche of progress in the study of cells, the coming decade included the characterization of the minimal media requirements for cells and development of sterile cell culture techniques. It was also aided by the prior advances in electron microscopy, and later advances such as development of transfection methods, discovery of green fluorescent protein in jellyfish, and discovery of small interfering RNA (siRNA), among others.
A outline history of cell:
1595 – Jansen credited with 1st compound microscope
1655 – Hooke described ‘cells’ in cork.
1674 – Leeuwenhoek discovered protozoa. He saw bacteria some 9 years later.
1833 – Brown descibed the cell nucleus in cells of the orchid.
1838 – Schleiden and Schwann proposed cell theory.
1840 – Albrecht von Roelliker realized that sperm cells and egg cells are also cells.
1856 – N. Pringsheim observed how a sperm cell penetrated an egg cell.
1858 – Rudolf Virchow (physician, pathologist and anthropologist) expounds his famous conclusion: omnis cellula e cellula, that is cells develop only from existing cells [cells come from preexisting cells]
1857 – Kolliker described mitochondria.
1879 – Flemming described chromosome behavior during mitosis.
1883 – Germ cells are haploid, chromosome theory of heredity.
1898 – Golgi described the golgi apparatus.
1938 – Behrens used differential centrifugation to separate nuclei from cytoplasm.
1939 – Siemens produced the first commercial transmission electron microscope.
1952 – Gey and coworkers established a continuous human cell line.
1955 – Eagle systematically defined the nutritional needs of animal cells in culture.
1957 – Meselson, Stahl and Vinograd developed density gradient centrifugation in cesium chloride solutions for separating nucleic acids.
1965 – Ham introduced a defined serum-free medium. Cambridge Instruments produced the first commercial scanning electron microscope.

 Types of cells:


The organisms may have two types of cells, viz., prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells:


Prokaryotic Cells:

 The prokaryotic (Gr., pro = before, primitive; karyon=nucleus) cells are the most primitive cells from morphological point of view. These cells have primitive nuclei without nuclear membrane and the nuclear contents as proteins, nucleic acids (DNA and RNA), etc., and have direct contact with the cytoplasm.

The prokaryotic cells also lack in well defined cytoplasmic organelles. The prokaryotic cells occur in viruses, bacteria and blue green algae.

Eukaryotic Cells:

The eukaryotic (Gr., eu = good or well; karyotic = nucleus) cells are the true cells which occur in the plants (from algae to angiosperms) and the animals (from Protozoa to mammals).
Though the eukaryotic cells have different shape, size, and physiology but all the cells typically composed of plasma membrane, cytoplasm and its organelles, viz., mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, Golgi apparatus, etc., and a true nucleus. Here the nuclear contents such as DNA, RNA and nucleoproteins remain concentrated and separated from the cytoplasm by the thin, perforated nuclear membranes.

 cell

 Cell



 Reference:


1.   Michie KA, Löwe J (2006). "Dynamic filaments of the bacterial cytoskeleton". Annual Review of Biochemistry. 75: 467–92. doi:10.1146/annurev.biochem.75.103004.142452PMID 16756499.
2.   Ménétret JF, Schaletzky J, Clemons WM, Osborne AR, Skånland SS, Denison C, Gygi SP, Kirkpatrick DS, Park E, Ludtke SJ, Rapoport TA, Akey CW (December 2007). "Ribosome binding of a single copy of the SecY complex: implications for protein translocation". Molecular Cell. 28 (6): 1083–92. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2007.10.034PMID 18158904.
3.    Prokaryotes. Newnes. Apr 11, 1996. ISBN 9780080984735.
4.    Campbell Biology—Concepts and Connections. Pearson Education. 2009. p. 138.
5.   ^ D. Peter Snustad, Michael J. Simmons, Principles of Genetics – 5th Ed. (DNA repair mechanisms) pp. 364-368
6.    Ananthakrishnan R, Ehrlicher A. "The Forces Behind Cell Movement". Biolsci.org. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
7.    Alberts, Bruce (2002). Molecular biology of the cell (4th ed.). Garland Science. pp. 973–975. ISBN 0815340729.
8.    Ananthakrishnan R, Ehrlicher A (June 2007). "The forces behind cell movement". International Journal of Biological Sciences. 3 (5): 303–17. doi:10.7150/ijbs.3.303PMC 1893118PMID 17589565.


No comments:

Post a Comment