HACCP Stands for Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point. HACCP is an internationally recognized system for reducing the risk of safety hazards in food.A HACCP System requires that potential hazards are identified and controlled at specific points in the process. This includes biological, chemical or physical hazards.Any company involved in the manufacturing, processing or handling of food products can use HACCP to minimize or eliminate food safety hazards in their product.

hazards can be made and an in house, effective monitoring system for quality assurance applied. HACCP is basically a statement of a preventive system of controls based on the hazard analysis and critical control points. Hazard analysis involves the identification of ingredients and products which might have a pronounced effect on food safety: might be consumed by special populations such as infants or the elderly; or might have no history of implication as the source of pathogens. Once the sensitivity of the ingredients is known, various critical control points can be identified.

This involves the identification and control over those processing parameters whose loss of control would result in an unacceptable risk to consumers. Microbiological critical control points have been summarized for frozen foods and canned foods. Ito
(1974), Peterson and Gunnerson (1974), and Bauman (1974) should be consulted for more detail. The HACCP concept is really a sophisticated food-control option that incorporates many of the traditional approaches that have been attempted over the years.
 many government agencies and other organizations have relied on various food control measures, including (1) education and training, (2) inspec-tion of processing facilities or food handling operations, and (3) microbiological surveys and testing. The HACCP concept is a new approach, but it also utilizes some of the above principles.
How is a hazard analysis done? Knowledge that a food represent a hazard suggests that adequate epidemiological information is available (indicating that the food potentially a health hazard) or that there is sufficient technical information on hand to indicate that the product poses a health hazard.

HACCP is based on seven principles:
  1. Conduct a hazard analysis
  2. Determine the Critical Control Points(CCPS)
  3. Establish critical limits
  4. Establish monitoring procedures
  5. Establish Corrective Actions
  6. Establish Procedures for Verification to Confirm the Effectiveness of the HACCP Plan.
  7. Establish record keeping procedures

Principle 1: Conduct a Hazard Analysis
Identify hazards and assess the risks associated with them at each step in the commodity system. Describe possible control measures. Hazards (biological, chemical, and physical) are conditions which may pose an unacceptable health risk to the consumer. A flow diagram of the complete process is important in conducting the hazard analysis. The significant hazards associated with each specific step of the manufacturing process must be listed. Preventive measures (temperature, pH, moisture level, etc.) to control the hazards are also listed.

Principle 2: Determine the Critical Control Points (CCPs)
A critical control point is a step at which control can be applied and is essential to prevent or eliminate a food-safety hazard, or reduce it to an acceptable level. A Critical Control Point (CCP) is a point, step, or procedure in a food process at which control can be applied and, as a result, a food-safety hazard can be prevented. Eliminated, or reduced to an acceptable level. A food-safety hazard is any biological, chemical, or physical property that may cause a food to be unsafe for human consumption.

Principle 3: Establish Critical Limits
Each control measure associated with a CCP must have an associated critical limit which separates the acceptable from the unacceptable control parameter. A critical limit is the maximum or minimum value to which a physical, biological, or chemical hazard must be controlled at a critical control point to prevent, eliminate, or reduce the hazard to an acceptable level.

Principle 4: Establish a Monitoring System

Monitoring is the scheduled measurement or observation at a CCP to assess whether the step is under control, i.e. within the critical limit(s) specified in Principle 3.Monitoring is a planned sequence of measurements or observations to ensure the product or process is in control. It allows processors to assess trends before a loss of control occurs. Adjustments can be made while continuing the process. The monitoring interval must be adequate to ensure reliable control of the process.

 Principle 5: Establish a Procedure for Corrective Action
when Monitoring at a CCP indicates a Deviation from an Established Critical Limit.These are actions to be taken when monitoring indicates a deviation from an established critical limit. The final rule requires a plant's HACCP plan to identify the corrective actions to be taken if a critical limit is not met. Corrective actions are intended to ensure that no product injurious to health or otherwise adulterated as a result of the deviation enters commerce. HACCP is intended to prevent product or process deviations. However, should loss of control occur, there must be definite steps in place for disposition of the product and for correction of the process. These must be pre-planned and written. If, for instance, a cooking step must result in a product centre temperature between 165°F and 175 F, and the temperature is 163°F,the corrective action could require a second pass through the cooking step with an increase in the temperature of the cooker.

Principle 6: Establish Procedures for Verification to Confirm the Effectiveness of the HACCP Plan.
Such procedures include auditing of the HACCP plan to review deviations and  product dispositions, and random sampling and checking to validate the whole plan. The HACCP regulation requires that all plants maintain certain documents.
 Including its hazard analysis and written HACCP plan, and records documenting the monitoring of critical control points, critical limits, verification activities, and the handling of processing deviations. The HACCP system requires the preparation and maintenance of a written HACCP plan together with other documentation. This must include all records generated during the monitoring of each CCP and notations of corrective actions taken. Usually, the simplest record keeping system possible to ensure effectiveness is the most desirable.

Principle 7: Establish Documentation Concerning
all Procedures and Records Appropriate to these Principles and their Application Validation ensures that the industry or the plant complies with the required design or plan; that is, they are successful in ensuring the production of safe products Plants will be required to validate their own HACCP plans. FSIS (Food Safety and Inspection Service) will not approve HACCP plans in advance, but will review them for conformance with the final rule. Verification ensures the HACCP plan is adequate, that is, working as intended, Verification procedures may include such activities as review of HACCP plans, CCP records, critical limits, and microbial sampling and analysis. Requirement of FSIS is that the HACCP plan includes verification tasks to be performed by plant personnel. Further, verification tasks would also be performed by FSIS inspectors. Both FSIS and industry will undertake microbial testing as one of several verification activities. Verification has several steps. The scientific or technical validity of the hazard analysis and the adequacy of the CCPS should be documented. Verification of the effectiveness of the HACCP plan is also necessary. The system should be subject to periodic revalidation using independent audits or other verification procedures. HACCP offers continuous and systematic approaches to assure food safety. In light of recent food-safety-related incidents, there is a renewed interest in HACCP from a regulatory point of view. Both FDA and USDA are proposing umbrella regulations, which will require HACCP plans of industry. The industry will do well to adopt HACCP approaches to food safety whether or not it is required.

Steps for the application of HACCP
1.    Food and Drug Administration. "Guidance for Industry: Juice HACCP Hazards and Controls Guidance, First Edition". Archived from the original on 17 September 2007. Retrieved 14 October 2007.
2.    Food and Drug Administration. "Managing Food Safety: A HACCP Principles Guide for Operators of Food Establishments at the Retail Level (Draft)". Retrieved 14 October 2007.
3.   Food Safety and Inspection Service. "FSIS Microbiological Hazard Identification Guide For Meat And Poultry Components Of Products Produced By Very Small Plants". Retrieved 14 October 2007.
4.      United States Department of Agriculture. "Guidance for school food authorities: developing a school food safety program based on the process approach to HACCP principles"(PDF). Retrieved 14 October 2007.
5.      Havelaar, A.H. (3 November 1994). "Application of HACCP to drinking water supply". Food Control. 5 (3): 145–152. doi:10.1016/0956-7135(94)90074-4.
6.      Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality (PDF) (Report). World Health Organization (WHO). 2004.
7.      Rosén, Lars; Hokstad, Per; Lindhe, Andreas; Sklet, Snorre; Røstum, Jon (June 2007). Generic Framework and Methods for Integrated Risk Management in Water Safety Plans(PDF) (Report). Techneau.

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